CNSA loading

Author

Luc Therrien, MN
Québec Regional Director (1981-1982), President (1982-1983) and Resource Person (1986-1994)

March 12, 1992

Preface

Often I say to nursing students that half of what I have learned during my baccalaureate degree in nursing I have learned it through my involvement as the 1981-1982 Quebec Regional Chairperson and the 1982-1983 National Chairperson of the Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association (CUNSA). Such involvement has helped me to become more confident as a professional and more committed as a nurse. Since 1986, I have had the chance to act as the Resource Person to CUNSA and its Board of Directors. As a Resource Person I have tried to help other students evolve through their experience within CUNSA. I have also tried to help them learn how nursing organizations can bring changes in our health care system which may be difficult if not impossible to achieve as an individual nursing student or nurse. Therefore, when I had the opportunity to write an historical paper on an issue related to nursing, I decided to look at the beginnings of CUNSA and the Canadian Nursing Students’ Association (CNSA), formerly CUNSA. I believe it is important for the history of nursing in Canada to include the history of Canadian nursing students organizations.

Abstract

The idea of a national organization of nursing students in Canada has been discussed at least since the 1964 Biennial Convention of the Canadian Nurses’ Association (CNA). The obstacles to the conception of such organization however, were perceived to be insurmountable. Instead, in 1971 the Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association (CUNSA) was founded based on the premise that it may be more feasible to start a national organization with a smaller group, the university students. The intent was to later join with diploma students. The
idea however, remained dormant for almost 20 years. But, at the 1988 CNA Biennial Convention, it was revived. Almost four years of deliberation at National Assemblies of CUNSA ensued before, on 1 February 1992, at the National Conference of CUNSA hosted by Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, diploma students were recognized as regular members. The name of the association was changed to become the “Canadian Nursing Students’ Association” (CNSA).

Prologue

Since 1971, generic and post-RN baccalaureate nursing students have been organized as a group under the name “Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association” (CUNSA). During the 1992 National Conference of CUNSA, hosted by Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario), the National Assemblyadopted a resolution permitting nursing students registered in diploma and collaborative programs to become regular members. Moreover, the members voted to change the name of the organization to “Canadian Nursing Students’ Association” (CNSA). In this paper, the events surrounding the conception of both organizations will be presented. The events leading to the foundation of CUNSA will be unveiled in the first part of this paper. In the second part, the events culminating in the transformation of CUNSA into CNSA will be chronicled.

Foundation of CUNSA

According to “The Canadian Nurse,” the official journal of the Canadian Nurses’ Association (CNA), the idea of a national organization for nursing students was first proposed in 1964 at the Biennial Convention of CNA, held in St. John’s Newfoundland. At the time, the strengthening of the provincial student organizations was deemed a priority and no further action was taken. At the following Biennial Convention of CNA held in Montreal in 1966, students “expressed interest in establishing communication with other student associations across the country” and indicated again the desire to form a national nursing students organization2. No further action was reported however.

The 1968 Biennial Convention of CNA, held in Saskatoon, was attended by seventy students. They discussed the pros and cons of a national nursing students’ association. Gail Goddard, past president of the Quebec Association of Student Nurses indicated that only eight provinces had students’ association. She reiterated the need to strengthen the provincial groups first. Wendy Jardine of the Kingston General Hospital3 pointed out that “CNA meetings are held only every two years, and a student is only likely to be active in her association for her two senior years. Furthermore, students in the new two-year schools would only be present for one national meeting.” Finances were identified as another problem.4 Anna Griesser, the 1978-1979 National Research Coordinator of CUNSA, sent a circular letter to which was attached a document providing data on the history of CUNSA. In this document, she recorded that students attending the 1968 CNA Convention would have concluded that “it was not feasible at this time” to establish a national nursing student organization.5

It seemed that despite the numerous obstacles to the creation of a national organization identified by nursing students at the 1968 CNA Biennial Convention, the idea continued to be discussed at McGill University6. Both the document by A. Griesser and a second document, not authored, entitled “How did we begin?”7 stated that in 1970, at the third inter-University conference held in Montreal8, the three attending Universities, Ottawa, McGill and New Brunswick (UNB) proposed a national organization of university nursing students as a first step. The intention was to expand later by including diploma schools. McGill University was to correspond with the Eastern Universities9 while Ottawa and UNB were to poll the remaining Canadian Universities10. Seemingly, another meeting was hosted by UNB during the 1970 CNA Biennial Convention held in Fredericton at which, the students initiated the establishment of CUNSA11.

Subsequently, University of Ottawa hosted the first National Conference of CUNSA from 5 February to 7 February 1971. The meeting was convened by Bill Anticknap, a nursing student from McGill University. On that occasion, the original constitution was drawn up by the member universities present12 According to The Canadian Nurse13, the draft constitution included “recommendations for a bilingual association with an annual meeting of the national executive followed by a conference for members.”14 Apparently, the organizers of the Ottawa Conference were Bin Anticknap (McGill), Donna Mahoney, Joanna Emery, Peggy Borts, Joanne Hunter, Pat Allen and Rex Langman. Carol Ann Godard was assistant coordinator, Mona Walrond, secretary and Ann McFadden, treasurer15.

In preparation for the 1972 National Conference at the University of Windsor, Marilyn Emery (U. of Windsor), 1971-1972 Conference Chairman, sent in November 1971 what may possibly be considered the first CUNSA Newsletter. It was a collection of loose 8.5 by 11 inch sheets stapled together. The cover page announced the theme of the 1972 National Conference: “Govern of be Governed?” Under the theme, two sentences stood out:

If we are to have any control of our own destiny, we must equip ourselves with the necessary organization to govern ourselves. If we do not act, others will, and we will find ourselves being governed, instead of governing!!!!!! 16

On the pages 2, 3 and 4 was a letter by Marilyn Emery addressed to fellow members of CUNSA. In the letter, she requested that the members sent their input on the Constitution to Kathy Coble (Windsor), representative of the Constitution Committee. She also stated that the next Newsletter would contain registration forms for the 1972 National Conference, to be hosted by University of Windsor17. On the last page was a poster advertising the Friday session which was to focus solely on discussing the Constitution. It implored the Official Delegates to attend the session and asked them “to submit any suggestions or objections now.”18

The CNSA collection does not contain minutes of the debate related to the Constitution nor does it contain information about other students involved with CUNSA during the term 1971-1972. Nevertheless, Griesser, who referenced the minutes of the first Executive Committee meeting in her document, wrote:

In 1972, at the National Conference of CUNSA held at the University of Windsor the constitution was passed, and on February 6, 1972 the first meeting of the National Executive19 was held-chaired by Jane Saunders of University of Windsor hence the completion of the birth of CUNSA.20

The CNSA collection contains a Constitution with the following hand written note: “First Constitution.” The purposes and objectives of CUNSA stated in this document are the following:

  1. to provide a medium through which students can express their opinions on issues in nursing;
  2. to provide a communication link between University nursing students across Canada;
  3. to encourage participation in professional and liberal education;
  4. to assist in, and/or initiate nursing research and;
  5. to provide liaison with other organizations concerned with nursing.21

In addition to the annual National Conference, the Constitution stipulated that regional conferences were to be held during the fall preceding the National Conference. In accordance with the Constitution, in the Fall of 1972, three regions reported on their first conference through their minutes. The members of the Quebec region met on 4 November 1972 and the ones from Ontario met on 28 October 1972.22 As for the minutes of the 1972 Western Regional Meeting, they began with the following statement:

History was made on Saturday, October 21, 1972 at 9:30 a.m. at the Calgary University School of Nursing, when the representatives of the five university schools of nursing in the Western Region of CUNSA, met for the first time.

From CUNSA to CNSA

Despite the publication in The Canadian Nurse of several news clips about a national nursing students organization throughout the sixties, after the foundation of CUNSA, for 20 years, no mention was made of a national association which would include students from diploma as well as baccalaureate programs. But this was to change in 1988.

The 1988-1989 President of CUNSA23, Daniel Scott (UNB) attended the 1988 CNA Biennial Convention held in Charlottetown, PEI. Recently, he wrote about his experience at the Charlottetown Convention:

…Students attending the CNA Biennial Convention gravitated together at breaks and social events. The discussions were very animated and we felt a need to have some meetings of our own. I asked conference organizers if we could have a room and was told that it should have been booked two years ago. That seemed to mean ‘no.’

Amelia Mangay Maglacas, Chief Nursing Scientist for WHO [World Health Organization], offered to ask again. We were immediately given a large meeting room, [ … ] About thirty students from five provinces attended. Julie Cameron, Atlantic Regional Director, and I represented CUNSA. There were a few Graduate students but the majority were from diploma schools. [ … ] We discovered many common interests and concerns about nursing. The next step seemed obvious why not work together? Amelia Mangay Maglacas chided us for
being fragmented into tiny groups when our strength was in unity.

[ … ] Susan Chatwood, from the University of British Columbia, agreed to write and present a resolution to the next [CUNSA] National Assembly in 1989.24

Susan Chatwood, in collaboration with Mitchel Erickson also from University of British Columbia (UBC), published an article on the students’ meeting held at the 1988 CNA Biennial Convention. The authors reported that students “discussed the feasibility of linking up with nursing students in other countries to share the vision of nursing for health” and identified “the lack of a national body representing nursing students in Canada as the major hindrance to international communication.” Other benefits emerging from an association representing both diploma and university nursing students were identified: This type of organization would also enhance communication between the two groups. If we, as students, begin to work together on issues such as entry to practice now, it will save us much effort in subsequent years.25

The students also thought that such organization could have student representation on the CNA Board of Directors. The idea was presented at the Open Forum and later a resolution to that effect was adopted. The authors concluded their article by calling upon nursing students, both diploma and university, to write to the Board of Directors of CUNSA and CNA expressing their interest in seeing CUNSA include diploma student in its rank.26

After the publication of the article by Chatwood & Erickson, the first reactions were negative. For instance, Luc Therrien, the Resource Person for CUNSA, wrote, in a memo sent to the 1988-1989 Board of Directors of CUNSA at the end of November 1988:

I have thought a lot about this issue of opening up to diploma students.[…] My first reaction is strongly against it. [ … ] what about if we lose what we have achieved i.e. that the 1983 resolution in favor of the B.Sc. by the year 2000 was reversed!

At the 1989 National Conference hosted by University of Windsor, most of the discussion occurred “behind the scene.” CUNSA Directors met with Susan Chatwood informally to discuss her proposed resolution. The resolution read as follows:

RESOLVED, That the Canadian University Nursing Students Association implement a plan to expand membership to include diploma nursing students.27

Several Directors feared the implications of adopting such a resolution and felt that the National Assembly would defeat it. At the conclusion of several long discussions, Susan Chatwood agreed to substitute her original resolution with the following one:

RESOLVED, That CUNSA/AElUC strike an ad hoc committee at the University of British Columbia to explore the expansion of membership to include diploma nursing students. The committee will report to all the Board of Directors’ Meetings and submit their final report the National Assembly in 1990.28

The new resolution was adopted, but not before a lengthy discussion, during which both concerns and support were expressed. Some students saw no common grounds between diploma and degree students and feared “an outvote on important university issues” whereas others indicated their positive experience from being involved with diploma students and perceived the importance of communication and collaboration to increase unification.29 Some of the concerns expressed reflected the mistrust existing between diploma and baccalaureate nurses.

As directed by the resolution, the ad hoc committee was to explore the expansion of membership to include diploma nursing students. It was composed of two diploma students, Janet Asano from BCIT30 and Melanie Wagner from Douglas College31 as well as one university student, Michèle Weaver from UBC.32 The Board of Directors33 received preliminary reports from the ad hoc committee. At the 1990 National Conference hosted by Dalhousie University in Halifax, Michèle Weaver presented a document entitled “Report from the Ad Hoc Committee Exploring the Expansion of CUNSA to Include Diploma Nursing Students”. The report contained four recommendations, the first one being that the National Assembly recognize diploma students as regular members of CUNSA. The other recommendations were that a new organizational structure for CUNSA be established; that a semi-permanent committee be struck to promote CUNSA among diploma students and that the 1991 National Assembly accept the structural changes recommended by the committee. As is normal practice at the National Assembly, the report was accepted exclusive of the recommendations.34

Instead, the principal recommendation was presented in the form of a resolution by Michèle Weaver who was also Official Delegate of UBC35 The resolution made as follows:

That CUNSA/AEIUC implement a plan to expand membership to include diploma nursing students.

Contrary to the previous year, there was less discussion “behind the scene”. Still, the National Assembly however, was not ready to adopt such a resolution. Instead, the following motion was adopted:

That we refer the matter to an ad hoc committee of University of British Columbia and University of Alberta members to investigate further the interest of Diploma Nursing students in joining CUNSA; this ad hoc committee to have national participation through involvement of the Associate Delegate from each university with direction and assistance from the Official Delegate; this ad hoc committee will report to the CUNSA Board of Directors at each meeting the BOD as well as make recommendations to the CUNSA Board of Directors.36

Unfortunately, the work of the 1990-1991 ad hoc committee on the admission of diploma schools in CUNSA did not get underway before September 1990. Laura Marian, the 1990-1991 Western Regional Director reported to the Board of Directors37 that one major reason was the communication problems between UBC and U. of Alberta.38 In the end, only U. of Alberta
conducted the project. The scope of the inquiry was restricted to the Western region because of the delays in starting the survey and also because of the uniqueness of the programs being developed in Western Canada.39

At the 1991 National Conference hosted by McGill University, Colleen Berean, 1990-1991 Official Delegate of the U. of Alberta, submitted a preliminary report as the director of the ad hoc committee on the admission of diploma schools. The discussion of the report revealed that some members were still concerned about including diploma students in CUNSA. For instance, “the Atlantic Region was concerned about trying to get diploma students in CUNSA as they are still having a hard enough time getting baccalaureate students to join.” In contrast, other members were saying “that if we are to work together in the profession then we will have to start at the education level…” University of Toronto stated that “if something is going to be done about this issue then we have to start taking action instead of writing Committee reports.”40

Because the data from the survey was not considered complete at the time of the conference, rather than submit recommendations, the ad hoc committee made three suggestions. But these suggestions did not translate into motions. Instead, another motion was submitted to the National Assembly, this one stating that a volunteer university per region take the responsibility of increasing the awareness of CUNSA among diploma nursing schools. The motion was adopted and University of Toronto immediately volunteered to carry out the task in Ontario.41

In the report that she submitted to the May meeting of the Board of Directors42, Sharon MacDonald, the 1991-1992 Atlantic Regional Director, stated she would ask each Official Delegate of her region to contact a “non-CUNSA” school to raise their awareness about CUNSA43 By the November meeting of the Board of Directors, U. of Toronto had contacted all the diploma schools in Ontario twice. Although only five reported back, all respondents were positive about joining CUNSA.44

At the meeting of the Board of Directors in November 1991, Theressa Simpson, the 1991-1992 Ontario Regional Director announced that in a referendum held in Ontario, all the universities returning their ballot voted in favor of including diploma students as regular members of CUNSA. Karen Shufelt, the 1991-1992 Western Regional Director and the Atlantic Regional Director said that their region were also supportive of the idea.45 There is little evidence to explain why the students in the Atlantic and the Ontario regions changed their opinion on this issue. Nevertheless, I believe that discussing this issue for at least two years, combined with the little interest shown by the diploma schools in joining CUNSA, probably helped decrease the fears in the baccalaureate students. The accomplishments of CUNSA would not be reversed nor would CUNSA be transformed beyond recognition as was originally feared. Moreover, the example of the collaborative program in Edmonton indicated that both diploma and nursing students could bee seen as part the same educational process. The commonalties between diploma and baccalaureate became more apparent than the differences.

For her part, Sudaf Khan, the Quebec Regional Director could not give an answer to the issue at hand but indicated that McGill, the only Quebec University member of CUNSA at the time,46 would be asked the question prior to the National Assembly. Based on this positive feedback from the West, the Ontario and the Atlantic regions, the Board of Directors adopted the following motion:

That the 1991-1992 Board of Directors support the inclusion of diploma students into CUNSA/AEIUC as regular members.47

The focus had changed from determining the interest of diploma schools in joining CUNSA to determining the interest of the members of CUNSA in recognizing diploma students as regular members. The members of CUNSA were now ready to face directly the question of opening up membership to diploma students and creating a national nursing student organization.

Christine Hiscox (Queen’s) organized the 1992 National Conference of CUNSA. Held in Kingston, the conference coincided with the sesquicentennial anniversary of Queen’s University and the fiftieth anniversary of their School of Nursing. It is within this historical context that the following resolution was discussed at the 1992 National Assembly of CUNSA:

RESOLVED that the Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association expand regular membership to include diploma and collaborative nursing students.

Every morning of the National Conference, each region met to discuss their own regional agenda and the one of the National Assembly. Through these meetings, except for the Quebec Region, represented only by McGill who was not ready to accept the resolutions48, all the other Regional Directors had been assured by their members that the resolution to include diploma students would be supported. Yet, no one was sure of the impact of the debate on the final vote.

The first speaker, Allan Currie, the 1991-1992 Official Delegate of Dalhousie University gave the tone to the debate. He reminded the National Assembly that the concerns related to this resolution, as discussed at the two previous National Assemblies, were inherent risks to the growth of an organization such as CUNSA. He continued by saying:

What we have to do is take the action to go forward, then we deal with the problems as they arise. We are not going to be able to resolve all these problems. [If] we keep trying to solve all these problems, forming committees, [etc.], looking into it, we will be forever on this topic. … I urge every member here to accept this resolution.49

The entire debate lasted less than 30 minutes. Most of the speakers were in favor of the resolution. The few who expressed their concern about the position of CUNSA on the Entry to Practice50 were quickly reassured that all professional nursing organizations in Canada supported such position, and that it was unlikely that CUNSA would reverse its stand. The resolution to include diploma and collaborative students as regular members was adopted. Laurentian and McGill, the only two Universities who opposed the resolution, stated that their students were simply not ready to support the resolution at the time of the 1992 National Conference.

The name and the acronym of the organization was also changed. Rather than replace the word University with United, the word was simply dropped and the new name was “Canadian Nursing Students Association” with the acronym becoming CNSA51. The rationale behind this surprising change was the importance of fostering commonalties rather then focusing on the differences between the groups.52

Epilogue

At the banquet of the 1992 National Conference of CUNSA-CNSA, Daniel Scott (who was bestowed a life membership for his contribution to CUNSA) thanked the audience on behalf of those who, in 1988 at the CNA Biennial Convention imagined such an organization. The reality, said Daniel Scott, turned out to be “beyond our wildest dream”. The acknowledgment should be extended to all those individuals who were involved in this process either through discussion or through their initiatives since 1964.

“You are walking three feet off the ground” Dr. Alice Baumgart, 1990-1992 President of CNA told the excited students at the banquet. They had a reason to be celebrating since this conference may be seen, in the future, as a turning point in the history of nursing in Canada. The gulf separating diploma and baccalaureate nursing students in the past is closing up with the emergence of collaborative programs in Western Canada. Competition is making place to collaboration. Nursing in Canada is entering a new era of unity. As the largest group of health professionals, a cohesive collectivity of nurses could significantly increase its influence on the Canadian health care system. CNSA will be fostering this new sense of fellowship among future nurses.

Sources Consulted

Chatwood, Susan, and Mitchel Erickson. “A Lesson in Professional Development.” The Canadian Nurse, 84 (November 1988): 29-30.

Chatwood, Susan. “Diploma Students.” Proposed resolution submitted to the Board of Directors, January 1989 CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

Emery, Marg. “Govern of be governed?” Letter from Windsor, Ontario, to fellow members of CUNSA, November 1 1971. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“First Constitution.” ID 1972. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

Griesser, Anna. “Compilation of data on the history of CUNSA.” TD attached to a circular letter from Toronto, 28 February 1979. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“How did we begin?” TD ca. 1976. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes – Regional meeting, Ontario region, CUNSA,” 1972. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes – Regional meeting, Quebec region, CUNSA,” 1972. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta

“Minutes- Regional meeting of Western zone,” 1972. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the Executive Committee of CUNSA,” November 1972. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,” May 26-28, 1989, Windsor, Ontario. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,” November 2 -3, 1990, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,” May 24-25, 199 1, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,” November 8-10, 1991, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the National Assembly of the Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association,” February 3 & 4, 1989 University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the National Assembly of the Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association,” February 2 & 3, 1990, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Minutes of the National Assembly of the Canadian University Nursing Students Association,” February 1-2, 1991, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

Scott, Daniel, “Conception of CNSA,” to Luc Therrien, February 7, 1992. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

Scott, Daniel, “Debate on resolution to admit diploma students to CUNSA/AEIUC,” Recorded I February 1992 at the CUNSA National Assembly in Kingston, Ontario. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“Student nurses meet, debate national association.” The Canadian Nurse 64 (September 1968): 5.

“Students Show Interest in National Student Organization.” The Canadian Nurse 62 (August 1966): 7.

Therrien, Luc, Memo sent to the Board of Directors, 28 November 1988. CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

“University nursing students hold constitutional conference.” The Canadian Nurse 67 (April 1971): 14.

 

Footnotes

1 The National Assembly is the legislative body of CUNSA/CNSA. The National Assembly meets annually during the National Conference of CUNSA-CNSA. Each University member of CUNSA-CNSA is allowed one vote.

2 “Students Show Interest in National Student Organization'” The Canadian Nurse 62 (August 1966):5.

3 It is unclear if students from baccalaureate programs were present.

4 “Student Nurses Meet, Debate National Association,” The Canadian Nurse 64 (September 1968): 5.

5 Anna Griesser, TD attached to a circular letter, 28 February 1979, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

6 In a further research on the history of CUNSA, the social context of the Late sixties characterized by the “student movement” could be examined to determine its, influence on the creation of CUNSA.

7 Ibid.; “How did we begin?”, circa 1976, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

8 No evidence was found about the location and time of the first two inter-University conferences.

9 The term “Eastern” was not geographically delineated.

10 No evidence was found that steps undertaken to establish CUNSA was based on the results of the polling of university schools of nursing.

11 Griesser, circular letter, “University Nursing Students Hold Constitutional Conference” The Canadian Nurse 62 (April 1971):14.

12 The evidences are contradictory regarding the universities represented at this first conference. It is reported in “Constitutional Conference” by The Canadian Nurse that 22 universities were represented whereas in the document by Griesser and the document “How did we begin?” students from only five universities are reported to be present: Lakehead, McGill, Windsor, Toronto and Ottawa.

13 “Constitutional Conference,” 14.

14 The Constitution, revised 1980, was translated into French by Pauline Paul, PhD student in nursing at the U. of Alberta who was then 1980-1981 Quebec Regional Chairperson

15 The university program in which these organizers were registered is not stated in The Canadian Nurse news clip “Constitutional Conference.”

16 Marilyn Emery, Windsor, Ontario, Newsletter entitled “Govern or Be Governed,” I November 1971, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

17 Dr. M. Josephine Flaherty was first invited to be part of a panel discussion at the 1972 Windsor Conference. She has attended every CUNSA National Conference since 1972.

18 Ibid.

19 The 1972-1973 and first officers of the Executive Committee of CUNSA were the President, Jane Saunders (Windsor); the Host Representative, Glenda Doucet (Dalhousie); the Atlantic Representative, Joe Brazel (Mt. St. Vincent); the Quebec Representative, Marg Rennie (McGill); the Ontario Representative, Cathy Nicolson (Lakehead) and, the Western Representative, Diane Rhea (Calgary). Minutes of the Executive Committee, November 1972, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

20 Griesser, circular letter.

21 “First Constitution”, 1972, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

22 Minutes of the Quebec Regional Meeting, 4 November 1972, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.; Minutes of the Ontario Regional Meeting, 28 October 1972, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

23 The CUNSA Directors for the 1988-1989 were Daniel Scott (UNB), President; Karen Zokvic (Windsor), Conference Director, Sharon-Lee Hall (UNB), Secretary/Treasurer, Leslie McGee (Queen’s), Communication Director; Spencer Ross (U. of Western Ontario), Fundraising Director, Ross Smith (Queen’s), Education/Research Director, Julie Cameron (Dalhousie), Atlantic Regional Director, Stéphan Lavoie (Laval), Quebec Regional Director, Andrew Lespérance (Laurentian), Ontario Regional Director and Vice-President and; Cherith Rathje (Calgary), Western Regional Director. Minutes of the Meeting of the Old/New Board of Directors of CUNSA/AElUC, February 6,1988, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

24 Daniel Scott, to Luc Therrien, Edmonton, 7 February 1992, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

25 Susan Chatwood and Mitchel Erickson, ‘A Lesson in Professional Development,” The Canadian Nurse 84 (November 1988): 29-30.

26 Ibid.

27 Susan Chatwood, Proposed resolution submitted to the Board of Directors, January 1989, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives,
Edmonton Alberta.

28 “Minutes of the National Assembly of the Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association,” February 3 & 4,1989 University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

29 Ibid., 14.

30 BCIT is the British Columbia institute of Technology

31 Douglas College is located in British Columbia.

32 “Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,” May 26-28, 1989, Windsor, Ontario, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

33 The 1989-1990 Directors were Karen Zokvic (Windsor), President; Julie Cameron (Dalhousie), Conference Director, Lori Weatherall (Queen’s), Secretary/Treasurer, Andrew Lespérance (Laurentian), Communication Director, Stephanie Lappan (Windsor), Fundraising Director and Vice-President; Denine Tatebe (Calgary), Education/Research Director, Daniel Scott (UNB), Atlantic Regional Director, Lynne Kelly (Laval), Quebec Regional Director; Maria Panzera (Windsor), Ontario Regional Director and; Patti Maga (Saskatchewan), Western Regional Director. Daniel Scott took over the previous Atlantic Regional Director in November 1989 who had resigned earlier in the fall of 1989.

34 “Minutes of the National Assembly of the Canadian University Nursing Students’ Association,” February 2 & 3, 1989 Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

35 Only Official Delegates can present resolutions and motions at the National Assembly.

36 Ibid.

37 The 1990-1991 Directors were Patti Mateyko, previously Maga  (Saskatchewan), President; Janique Gagnon (McGill), Conference Director, Heather Gould (Toronto), Secretary/Treasurer, Trish Elbe (Lethbridge), Communication Director, Michèle Bodenstab (Saskatchewan), Education/Research Director and Vice-President; Valerie Hogan (St. Francis Xavier U.), Atlantic Regional Director; Val Moors (Queen’s), Ontario Regional Director and; Laura Marian (Alberta), Western Regional Director. The Fundraising Director resigned in September 1990 and there was no Quebec Regional Director in 1990-199 1.

38 “Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,” November 2-3, 1990, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

39 “Minutes of the National Assembly of the Canadian University Nursing Students Association,” February 1-2,1991, McGill University,Montreal, Quebec, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

40 Ibid., 5.

41 Ibid., 5-7.

42 The 1991-1992 Directors were Colleen Berean (Alberta), President; Christine Hiscox (Queen’s), Conference Director, Linda Scott (Toronto), Secretary/Treasurer; Fred Newman (Lakehead), Communication Director, Stephanie McArthur (McMaster), Fundraising Director, Heather Watt (Lethbridge),Education/Research Director and Vice-President; Sharon MacDonald (St. F.X.U. Atlantic Regional Director, Sudaf Khan (McGill), Quebec Regional Director, Theressa Simpson (Queen’s), Ontario Regional Director and; Kam Shufelt (Alberta), Western Regional Director.

43 “Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,”May 24-25, 199 1, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CNSA Collection 92-3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

44 “Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of CUNSA/AEIUC,” November 8-10,1991, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton Alberta.

45 Ibid.

46 The participation of the French universities from Quebec in CUNSA has vaned over the years.For that reason and because of the fluctuating cost of translation, it has been almost impossible to maintain full bilingualism within CUNSA. Still, translation, when available, has not guaranteed the participation of the French universities from Quebec in CUNSA.

47 Ibid., 8.

48 With the enthusiasm generated at the 1991 November Board of Directors’ Meeting, Sudaf Khan, the 1991 Quebec Regional Director and the Official Delegate of McGill, were able to raise the awareness of the McGill students to the question of including diploma students in CUNSA. A referendum was organized, and by the time of the 1992 National Conference, although a very small number of students had expressed their opinion, the vote war. equally divided. Considering the perceived animosity between the two groups in Quebec, this was received positively by Sudaf and her Official Delegate (Sudaf Khan, personal communication, I February 1992).

49 “Debate on Resolution to include diploma students into CUNSA/AElUC,” cassette recorded by Daniel Scott, I February 1992 at the National Assembly of CUNSA/AEIUC, Kingston, Ontario, CNSA Collection 92.3, AARN Museum and Archives, Edmonton, Alberta.

50 At the 1983 National Assembly, CUNSA adopted a position statement supporting the Entry to Practice.

51 The 1992-1993 and first Directors of CNSA are Theressa Simpson (Queen’s), President; Roxanne Stauffer (Alberta), Conference Director, Karen Shufelt (Alberta), Secretary/Treasurer, Shauna Tonhauser (Alberta), Communication Director, Ashley vander Torre (Alberta), Fundraising Director, Karen Hearn (Windsor), Education/Research Director and Vice-President; Cathleen Coleman (St. FAX.), Atlantic Regional Director, Dany Cordeau (McGill), Quebec Regional Director; Allison Hutchins (Toronto), Ontario Regional Director and, Leegay Jagoe (Saskatchewan), Western Regional Director.

52 Ibid.


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